In vitro studies have shown both up- and down-regulation effects of root extracts, polysaccharide bupleurans, and individual saikosaponins, especially saikosaponin D, on the immune system. Increased antibody response, induction of type 1 interferons, and up-regulation of macrophages have been demonstrated. 3 , 8 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 Bidirectional effects on T lymphocytes have also been demonstrated, possibly a dose-dependent effect. 3 , 8 , 35 , 39 , 40 , 41 Anticomplementary effects by polysaccharide extracts of Bupleurum smithii roots 42 and inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase by the aerial part of Bupleurum fruitcescens have been demonstrated. 43
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