The expression and activity of key enzymes of sex steroid metabolism have major implications in both development and progression of various human hormone-related tumors, including breast, prostate, lung, and liver cancer. This volume explores the role of local synthesis of steroid hormones, a process that has assumed an increasing importance in our understanding about several malignancies originating from steroid target tissues, wherein abnormal levels of individual steroids may promote tumor growth. In this framework, a divergent expression and/or activity of key gonadal steroid enzymes (including dehydrogenases, hydroxylases, sulfotransferases, sulfatases, and aromatase) may eventually lead to a differential accumulation of hormone derivatives with divergent biological activities in individual target tissues. This is of crucial importance in predicting the overall biological impact that sex steroids have on peripheral target tissues and, hence, on their potential role in cancer development and/or progression.
The volume focuses on five key enzymes in the metabolism of sex steroids: (1) 17betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; (2) 5alphareductase; (3) hydroxylases and catechol-oxy methyltransferase; (4) sulfatase, sulfotransferases, and glucuronidase; and (5) aromatase. The organization of the volume is designed to provide an updated picture of the existing knowledge about the association between steroid enzyme expression/function and the development and/or progression of major human cancers, including classical (breast, prostate) and nonclassical (lung, liver) hormone-related tumors. The resulting inferences for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are also presented, along with the experimental basis for developing preventive measures. NOTE: Annals volumes are available for sale as individual books or as a journal. For information on institutional journal subscriptions, please visit /nyas. ACADEMY MEMBERS: Please contact the New York Academy of Sciences directly to place your order (). Members of the New York Academy of Science receive full-text access to the Annals online and discounts on print volumes. Please visit http:///MemberCenter/Join.
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Transdermal patches (adhesive patches placed on the skin) may also be used to deliver a steady dose through the skin and into the bloodstream. Testosterone-containing creams and gels that are applied daily to the skin are also available, but absorption is inefficient (roughly 10%, varying between individuals) and these treatments tend to be more expensive. Individuals who are especially physically active and/or bathe often may not be good candidates, since the medication can be washed off and may take up to six hours to be fully absorbed. There is also the risk that an intimate partner or child may come in contact with the application site and inadvertently dose himself or herself; children and women are highly sensitive to testosterone and can suffer unintended masculinization and health effects, even from small doses. Injection is the most common method used by individuals administering AAS for non-medical purposes.