In some countries, phytoestrogenic plants have been used for centuries in the treatment of menstrual and menopausal problems, as well as for fertility problems. [53] Plants used that have been shown to contain phytoestrogens include Pueraria mirifica , [54] and its close relative, kudzu , [55] Angelica , [56] fennel and anise . [32] In a rigorous study, the use of one such source of phytoestrogen, red clover , has been shown to be safe, but ineffective in relieving menopausal symptoms [57] ( black cohosh is also used for menopausal symptoms, but does not contain phytoestrogens. [58] ) Panax Ginseng contains phytoestrogens and has been used for menopausal symptoms . [ citation needed ]

SOURCES: Byron Cryer, MD, spokesman, American Gastroenterological Association; associate professor of medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas. Nieca Goldberg, MD, spokeswoman for the American Heart Association; chief of women's cardiac care, Lennox Hill Hospital, New York; author, Women Are Not Small Men: Lifesaving Strategies For Preventing And Healing Heart Disease In Women . John Klippel, MD, president and CEO, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta. Scott Zashin, clinical assistant professor, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; author of Arthritis Without Pain . American College of Rheumatology web site. Arthritis Foundation web site. American Heart Association web site. American College of Gastroenterology web site. American Gastroenterological Association web site. American Academy of Family Physicians web site. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology web site.