In some countries, phytoestrogenic plants have been used for centuries in the treatment of menstrual and menopausal problems, as well as for fertility problems.  Plants used that have been shown to contain phytoestrogens include Pueraria mirifica ,  and its close relative, kudzu ,  Angelica ,  fennel and anise .  In a rigorous study, the use of one such source of phytoestrogen, red clover , has been shown to be safe, but ineffective in relieving menopausal symptoms  ( black cohosh is also used for menopausal symptoms, but does not contain phytoestrogens.  ) Panax Ginseng contains phytoestrogens and has been used for menopausal symptoms . [ citation needed ]
Researchers from Oklahoma State University gave participants either 40 g of soy protein (about ¼ cup of shelled edamame) or milk-based protein for three months. At the study's end, pain was reduced for those who ate soy protein but not for those in the milk protein group. "I'm talking about tofu, tempeh, other fermented forms of whole soy—not soy protein isolates, which you commonly see in processed snacks," says James N. Dillard, MD, author of The Chronic Pain Solution . Cooking with tofu is simple as long as you know the basics. Silken tofu is soft and often used in creamy dressings, soups, and desserts; firm tofu is typically cooked like meat—say, marinated and grilled.
FDA reviewed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of cardiovascular and upper gastrointestinal events with non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), conducted by the Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ (CNT) Collaboration of the Clinical Trial Service and Epidemiological Studies Units at Oxford University. 2 We also reviewed observational studies and other scientific publications in the medical literature. 1 The findings of these studies were discussed at a joint meeting of the Arthritis Advisory Committee and Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee held on February 10-11, 2014 (for complete safety reviews, background information, and minutes of this meeting, click here ).