Glucose levels vary before and after meals, and at various times of day; the definition of "normal" varies among medical professionals. In general, the normal range for most people (fasting adults) is about 4 to 6 mmol/l or 80 to 110 mg/dl. (where 4 mmol/l or 80 mg/dl is "optimal".) A subject with a consistent range above 7 mmol/l or 126 mg/dl is generally held to have hyperglycemia, whereas a consistent range below 4 mmol/l or 70 mg/dl is considered hypoglycemic . In fasting adults, blood plasma glucose should not exceed 7 mmol/l or 126 mg/dL. Sustained higher levels of blood sugar cause damage to the blood vessels and to the organs they supply, leading to the complications of diabetes. 
Preventing the development of diabetic complications such as infections, kidney failure, and amputations involves proper glycemic control. Addressing different aspects of diabetes control aid in the reduction of infection susceptibility. Literature suggests maintaining blood glucose levels below 200 mg/dL. Glucose levels above 200 mg/dL are expected to pose an increased risk of infections. To assist in the maintenance of proper perfusion through blood vessels, adherence to standard of care is vital. Standard of care includes maintaining HbA1c < 7%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg, proper control of cholesterol levels and vaccination use (. annual influenza vaccination). Patients should also have annual foot exams and should inspect their feet daily in between exams. To prevent dryness, patients should ensure that their feet are moisturized. Walking barefoot or wearing uncomfortable shoes is not advised. Women with diabetes have a higher risk of experiencing yeast and urinary tract infections. Therefore, they are encouraged to have annual physicals and report any signs or symptoms of such infections. Proper wiping techniques during restroom use are wiping from front to back to prevent the transmission of bacteria to the vaginal area. Voiding after sexual intercourse is also encouraged. Adherence to the previously mentioned tips allows both the patient and the health care provider to take charge of this disease in the pursuit of improving the patient’s quality of life.