The most common side effects with Rapamune (seen in more than 1 patient in 10) are pneumonia (infection of the lungs), infections (fungal, viral, bacterial or by Herpes simplex ), urinary tract infection (infection of the structures that carry urine), thrombocytopenia (low blood platelet counts), anaemia (low red blood cell counts), leucopoenia (low white blood cell counts), hypokalaemia (low blood potassium levels), hypophosphataemia (low blood phosphate levels), hyperlipidaemia (including hypercholesterolaemia (high blood cholesterol levels) and hypertriglyceridaemia (high blood levels of triglycerides, a type of fat)), hyperglycaemia (high blood sugar levels), diabetes, headache, tachycardia (rapid heartbeat), lymphocele (fluid collection around the kidney), hypertension (high blood pressure), abdominal pain (stomach ache), diarrhoea, constipation, nausea (feeling sick), rash, acne, arthralgia (joint pain), proteinuria (protein in the urine), menstrual disorders, oedema (swelling), peripheral oedema (swelling of the ankles and feet), pyrexia (fever), pain, impaired wound healing, increased blood lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker of tissue breakdown), increased blood creatinine levels (a marker of kidney problems) and abnormal liver function test. Because it reduces the activity of the immune system, Rapamune can also increase the risk of developing cancer, especially lymphoma and skin cancer. For the full list of all side effects reported with Rapamune, see the package leaflet.
Oral and injectable systemic corticosterois are steroid hormones prescribed to decrease inflammation in diseases and conditions such as arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, for example), ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, asthma, bronchitis, some skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions that involve the nose and eyes. Examples of systemic corticosteroids include hydrocortisone (Cortef), cortisone, prednisone (Prednisone Intensol), prednisolone (Orapred, Prelone), and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Depo-Medrol, Solu-Medrol). Some of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids are swelling of the legs, hypertension, headache, easy bruising, facial hair growth, diabetes, cataracts, and puffiness of the face.
Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile .  The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception .  In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone.  The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field.  The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.