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In general, GABA does not cross the blood–brain barrier ,  although certain areas of the brain that have no effective blood–brain barrier, such as the periventricular nucleus , can be reached by drugs such as systemically injected GABA.  At least one study suggests that orally administered GABA increases the amount of human growth hormone (HGH).  GABA directly injected to the brain has been reported to have both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the production of growth hormone, depending on the physiology of the individual.  Certain pro-drugs of GABA (ex. picamilon ) have been developed to permeate the blood–brain barrier, then separate into GABA and the carrier molecule once inside the brain. This allows for a direct increase of GABA levels throughout all areas of the brain, in a manner following the distribution pattern of the pro-drug prior to metabolism. [ citation needed ]
Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q ; encoded by the codons CAA and CAG) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated −NH 2 + form under biological conditions), an α-carboxylic acid group (which is in the deprotonated −COO − form under biological conditions), and a side chain amide which replaces the side chain hydroxyl of glutamic acid with an amine functional group , classifying it as a charge neutral, polar (at physiological pH) amino acid. It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of it, but in some instances of stress, the body's demand for glutamine increases and glutamine must be obtained from the diet.